This guide will cover how to install the majority of tools you will be using throughout a typical Computing Science (CS) degree. This guide covers installations for MacOS and Windows, and assumes that anyone who is using Linux already has a setup they are comfortable with.
Here's a typical scenario of software installation. You hear about a tool called
a_cool_tool that you want to download.
You first try Googling for it, but unfortunately the name is so generic that you get a ton of unrelated results (I'm looking at you, Rust).
You finally find what you think is the right thing, but now you have to read through a ton of introduction, ads, and / or have to sign up for a newsletter to download the software.
Once the software downloads and you run the installer, you realize that the version you downloaded doesnt work for your operating system / version. Feeling frustrated, you look for fixes until you finally get it working. However, you still get an annoying prompt to re-visit the site and download the latest version everytime theres an update. Not only that, but to uninstall it, chances are you either need to dig through hidden folders and scrape out all the hidden files, or hope that you can find the uninstaller and that it does its job.
Package managers come to the rescue. For Windows, head to https://chocolatey.org/ and click the "Install Chocolatey Now" button. for MacOS, open Terminal and enter
/usr/bin/ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)".
Installing packages permalink
One thing to note about Homebrew is that it separates Command Line Interface (CLI) applications from Graphical User Interface applications. If you're not sure what the difference between each is, a summary is explained below.
Installing CLI packages with Homebrew is done with
brew install the_package_name. For GUI applications, use
brew cask install the_package_name. Chocolatey allows you to install packages simply by entering
choco install the_package_name.
Both Chocolatey and Homebrew allow you to search for a package using the
brew/choco search package_to_search command, and to upgrade packages using
brew/choco upgrade package_to_upgrade. Homebrew can upgrade all packages simply by running
brew upgrade, whereas Chocolatey uses
choco upgrade all.
Say you want to install the latest version of Python. For Chocolatey, just type
choco install python and it will automatically find a compatible version of Python and install it for you! Homebrew is similar, simply type in
brew install python3 (entering
python will install Python version 2, which you do not want!).
On MacOS, I highly suggest installing
neofetch (purely for work purposes, I promise!) and playing around with them. Try using the
| to get interesting combinations, such as
sl | lolcat. Unfortunately for Windows, I do not know of any fun packages to install, unless you install the Linux Subsystem for Windows (more on that below).
Almost all of your software development is going to be spent in a test editor of some sort, so it's a good idea to get a good one. VSCode is my personal favorite, which you can install from the link or a package manager as a GUI application (use the
cask command for Homebrew!). Once it's download, install it and then open it.
VSCode is already quite powerful by itself, but we cna easily extend it and personalize it with its numerous extensions (there's even one for Spotify!). I suggest installing the following extensions:
You can create a new file and then save it with the appropriate extension (eg
.py for Python), and VSCode will automatically do syntax highlighting and linting on your code, saving you alot of time and mistakes!
VSCode has a built-in terminal, which you can activate by pressing both
control and `. From here you can enter all the commands you normally would, such as
Recommended installations permalink
I suggest installing the following using your respective package managers, or from the web:
- Python, a common programming language
- Xcode & Xcode CLI tools: install Xcode from the app store, and run
- iTerm2, my favorite terminal for MacOS (use instead of Terminal)
These extras are either more of a personal recommendation, or are related to insIDE club events.
- Latex: I highly advise installing and learning to use Latex. The installation method varies between operating systems and distributions, and so would likely need its own tutorial (there are many good ones on the web).
- Rust: A new language which offers many appealing features.
- GameBoy Studio, easily make GameBoy games!
- Hylia, a static website tool
The main purpose of GitHub, besides hosting your projects, is Version Control. This is essentially undo / redo on steroids. If you make a mistake, you can easily undo it. When you want to save changes to your project, you can use
commit to commit changes, and see how they compare to previous versions or what exactly you have changed. Then, to actually push the update from your computer to GitHub, you use
push. When you commit a change, you are required to enter a commit message. While this may initially be annoying, this is a very good practice, so that incase something goes wrong in the future, you can look back at your changes and see the description of each commit. This will help keep track of when and what you did.
Make to register at https://github.com/, so you can access its vast collection of repositories and make your own. Respositories are essentially packages containing things like tools, projects, or apps that other fellow developers have made. For example, Google has their repositories here, and you can find my own here.
The easiest way to manage your repositories is by downloading and installing GitHub Desktop for Version Control (you'll need this soon, and use it indefinitely). Sign into your GitHub account from within Github Desktop, and then head to File -> Options for Windows, or GitHub Desktop -> Preferences for MacOS. From there, click the Advanced tab, and select your preferred External Editor and Shell (in my case, Visual Studio Code, and iTerm2).
Make sure to sign up using your university email, so you can get the perks of being a student. This applies to many other services (Spotify, etc.) so keep an eye out!
Windows Subsystem for Linux permalink
After going through this tutorial, you start to see why so many people find MacOS / Linux appealing. When it comes to software development, the support for tools and languages typically goes (from most / soonest support to latest) Linux -> MacOS -> Windows. MacOS usually gets support around the same time as Linux, and has even occasionally gotten it sooner due to Apple's influences and internal development, LLVM being an excellent example (LLVM forms the backend of a significant portion of emerging programming languages, read more here).
Let's start by explaining what each is.
CLI (Command Line Interface) permalink
CLI is the most "basic" form of computer-human interaction, where a user would enter a command or series of commands into a terminal, and the computer would think for a bit and spit out an output. This form of interaction far precedes GUIs, and is still a popular and even preferred approach of interfacing due to productivity reasons.
For example, on Linux (and MacOS), If you have a test file named
my_paper.txt in your home folder's
Download directory, and you want to find how many times the word
the appears in it, all you have to do is type
grep -o -i the ~/Desktop | wc -l, and voila.
You can get stuff done in a fraction of the time, assuming you're patient enough to learn the commands (or just use Google like I do). You might have also noticed the
| symbol in the above command. That's the "pipe" symbol, and its used to take the output of the previous command and put it in the next. In the above case, the
grep .. portion reads the file and spits out all words matching the filter you used (
the). This means it would also catch
they since i didn't specify that the word had to only contain
| would take those
the's and input them into
wc, which stands for word count, which counts the number of words inputted, and finally outputs
6 (in my case at least).
On the other hand, GUIs are designed to be used with a mouse and navigate by clicking buttons and such. The advantage of GUIs is that they have a very shallow learning curve (just click the thing you want), and are better designed for things like media consumption (imagine text-based instagram or youtube) where the desired output cannot be easily expressed with simple text. However, as you become more comfortable with software development, you may begin to prefer CLI due to the previously explained reasons.